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Malaria or malaria, among other designations, is an acute or chronic infectious disease caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Plasmamodiumtransmitted by mosquito bite Anopheles.
Malaria kills 3 million people a year, a rate comparable only to AIDS, and affects more than 500 million people every year. It is the leading tropical parasitosis and one of the most frequent causes of death in children in these countries: (it kills one million children under 5 each year).
According to WHO, malaria kills an African child every 30 seconds, and many children who survive severe cases suffer severe brain damage and have learning disabilities.
Malaria is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes. Anopheles.
Transmission usually occurs in rural and semi-rural regions, but can occur in urban areas, especially on the outskirts. In cities situated at locations above 1500 meters, however, the risk of malaria is small. Mosquitoes are most active during the night, from dusk to dawn. They contaminate by biting the carriers of the disease, becoming the main vector of transmission of this disease to other people. The greatest risk of malaria acquisition is indoors, although transmission can also occur outdoors.
The malaria mosquito only survives in areas with average minimum temperatures above 15 ° C, and only reaches enough individuals for disease transmission in regions where average temperatures are around 20-30 ° C and high humidity. . Only female mosquitoes bite men and feed on blood. Males live on plant sap. Larvae thrive in standing water, and maximum prevalence occurs during seasons with heavy rainfall.